Most of you have probably witnessed a regular simultaneous display given by one person and you understand exactly how it is conducted. To be sure you know the details of such an arrangement an example may be useful. At the start of, say, a 20-board “simul” the exhibitor walks successively from Board 1 to Board 20, usually taking White and making the first move in each game. Then he returns to Board 1 and answers each opponent’s reply in succession. This general procedure continues as various games are finished. On the other hand, in a standard tandem display (also known as “leapfrog chess” or “piggy-back chess”) two exhibitors alternate moves so that after one exhibitor completes his moves on all boards the second exhibitor takes over and plays the next move on every board. Then the first player takes over again on all boards, followed by the second player on all boards, and so forth as the number of games in progress of course diminishes due to wins, draws, or (heaven forbid) losses by the partnership. The partners are never allowed to consult with each other, except when a decision has to be made about whether to accept or offer a draw, or to resign. The important point is that neither player ever makes two successive moves in any game.
The setting was unusual for a blindfold simultaneous chess exhibition by a grandmaster. It was held at the 20th anniversary of the annual Sohn Investment Conference, which is the world’s largest meeting of prominent financial experts: investors, hedge-fund managers, and bankers. Each member of the audience, with the exception of a few special invitees, had to pay $5,000 for the opportunity to attend; most of the over $4 million that was raised is to be used to support research in and treatment of childhood cancer, from which Ira Sohn died. Held at Avery Fischer Hall in Lincoln Center in New York, the event usually features numerous speakers on financial issues, but this time Magnus Carlsen’s blindfold display may have created as much attention as many of the speeches.
American grandmaster Timur Gareev, who emigrated from Uzbekistan a few years ago, is now one of the top tournament players in the U.S. The 25-year-old won the North American Open in 2012 and tied for third in this year’s regular U.S. Championship. With a B.A. degree in Business Marketing from the University of Texas at Brownsville, he has been actively promoting scholastic chess as well as his own achievements in playing blindfold chess.
His frequent blindfold displays, so far all west of the Mississippi River, have produced the greatest interest in that kind of play by an American since George Koltanowski’s glory days touring the U.S. from the late 1930’s to the 1950’s. Before settling in San Francisco, Koltanowski twice set world records for number of opponents played simultaneously without sight of any boards or pieces, by opposing 30 in Antwerp, Belgium in 1931 and 34 in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1937. (Franco-Russian Alexander Alekhine’s blindfold exhibition against 32 in Chicago in 1933 forced Kolty to play to regain the world record with his 34-boarder). Since then, the world simultaneous blindfold record has been captured by GM Miguel Najdorf, playing 40 in 1943 and 45 in 1947 in South America, and (64 years later!) in 2011 by German master Marc Lang, who took on 46 at once in Sontheim an der Brenz, Germany. Blogs about Lang’s successively increasing size of displays, leading to his recent world record performance, have appeared on this website, which readers can consult for exhibition details and games.
These facts provide a historical background for our current focus on Timur Gareev’s blindfold displays. According to numerous media reports in newspaper chess columns, magazines, and websites Gareev has played as many as 27 and 33 games simultaneously while literally blindfolded and facing toward his opponents, instead of simply playing with his back to them, as is customary. Many sources include a photo of him playing blindfolded, as well as the physical arrangement of his opponents, and so there seems no good reason to reproduce any of those photos here. His 27-board display took place in Oahu, Hawaii in December 2012 and he won 24, lost only 1, and drew 2 of the games, a truly excellent score. However, the opposition included mostly middle-school students without USCF ratings and therefore it is hard to judge the quality of the opposition. The exhibition took 9 hours.
In 1947 GM Miguel Najdorf, while sitting in an isolated room, played 45 games simultaneously in São Paulo, Brazil. In another room his opponents sat with regular boards and pieces in front of them, and their and Najdorf’s moves were transmitted to each other via standard chess notation using a microphone. This performance exceeded his own previous world record of 40, set in 1943 in Rosario, Argentina. Until a few weeks ago, since 1947 only one player had played as many as 35 blindfold games at once under well-controlled conditions. That successful master was Marc Lang of Günzburg, Germany, who handled 35 opponents in November of 2010, surpassing blindfold champion George Koltanowski’s still-existing European and pre-Najdorf world record of 34 simultaneous games set in Edinburgh in 1937 (in 2009 Lang had set a new German record of 23). Lang’s only remaining goal was to exceed Najdorf’s 45 games and thereby gain the world record. For the past year he has been preparing to do just that, which he accomplished by playing 46 opponents on November 26-27, 2011.
It is remarkable that Lang is only a FIDE master, with an ELO rating around 2300. Except for Koltanowski (who did achieve an International Master’s rating in 1950 and was later awarded an honorary Grandmaster title by FIDE in 1988), the greatest simultaneous blindfold players of the past were top world-class tournament and match players like Harry Pillsbury, Alexander Alekhine, Richard Réti,and Najdorf. Lang’s ELO rating places him behind many hundreds of players of today who have gained International Master or Grandmaster titles and won major tourneys. The question remains whether Lang could have reached a much higher ELO rating had he not devoted himself to his computer business and family and rarely played in regular tourneys, or whether possession of excellent memory skills, a fairly high level of chess mastery, and strong motivation are about all you need to become a world blindfold champion.
Several of my previous blogs have described German FIDE master Marc Lang’s exploits at playing many blindfold games simultaneously. In that type of exhibition he played 35 at once last November, surpassing the previous European record of 34 games set by George Koltanowski at Edinburgh, Scotland in 1937. He intends to play 46 games in the same manner in November 2011, to beat the current world record of 45 set by GM Miguel Najdorf in 1947 in São Paulo, Brazil.
Meanwhile, he has just broken the world record for playing many rapid blindfold games in succession, not simultaneously. In 1944 American GM Reuben Fine introduced this type of blindfold display, and with each sighted opponent and Fine having 10 seconds per move, his maximum number of opponents was 10 against very strong opposition in Washington, D.C. (+9, =1). In 1951 Koltanowski (“Kolty”, as everyone called him) decided to play far more than 10 consecutive games at the same speed and took on 50 relatively weak players in San Francisco, scoring +43, -2, =5 . The display took 8½ hrs. Of course Kolty played all the games without sight of a board and pieces, whereas all his opponents had regular boards and pieces in front of them. Later on, in 1960, Kolty exceeded his previous record by playing 56 successive games at 10-sec-a-move (+50, =6), again in San Francisco in an exhibition lasting 9¾ hrs. once more against relatively weak opposition. More details of all these events are described in our book on pages 90 and 112.
Today very accurate and durable chess clocks are easily available and we are in the computer age. As a result, there is a new and different way of playing rapid or “blitz” chess, as compared to use of a bell or buzzer that rang every 10 seconds in the Fine and Kolty era. Chess clocks or computer timers are usually set so that each player has a total of five minutes for the entire game. For a 40-move game this would average out to fewer than 10 sec a move, a generally faster clip than in the earlier era, although a player could take more than 10 seconds for some moves if he found it necessary (and he might move within a second or two at times, especially early in the game).
In our book (pages 30 and 396-397) we credited Louis Paulsen with raising the world simultaneous blindfold record from 5 to 7 to 8 to 10 to 12 to 15 opponents during the years 1857 to 1859, although we stated that “regrettably, it has not been possible to discover more details of several of Paulsen’s displays”. There are many question marks instead of definite dates, overall scoring percentages, total time taken, etc., in our table on pp.396-397! Johannes Zukertort took on 16 opponents without sight of any boards or pieces in 1876 and was then hailed as the new world-record holder, presumably because he had exceeded Paulsen’s best total of 15 seventeen years before. We relied on reports in Bell’s Life in London, The Field, and Hooper and Whyld’s authoritative and encyclopedic Oxford Companion to Chess as sources for most of our statements and details.
However, in a recent column on the Chess Cafe website, dated July 30, 2011, the eminent chess historian Olimpiu Urcan of Singapore reports that his extensive research on Paulsen’s displays indicates that, while there is no doubt that he gave many blindfold displays on 10 boards, important questions remain about his 12- and 15-board exhibitions, especially the latter. The actuality of the supposed 12-board display in St. Louis in June 1858, which had been mentioned without details in several places after 1860, is apparently most dependent on material from a column by Max Judd in the St. Louis Globe-Democrat of November 14, 1875, which provides a game played by the father of a man who forwarded to Judd the score of his father’s game against Paulsen over sixteen years before and who reported that Paulsen scored 11 wins and 1 draw in that display. Urcan supplies the game, vs. O. Monnig, Sr., which was the one draw, but he mentions that other sources imply that Paulsen gave only 10-board displays in St. Louis during that period. So it is not completely clear that Paulsen gave a controlled 12-board display at any time.
The question of whether Paulsen ever gave a completely acceptable exhibition of 15 boards is much more uncertain. Urcan reports that any such display was reported in several newspapers to have occurred in November of 1858 in Dubuque and not in 1859, the usual year given for his supposed record-breaking exhibition of 15 boards. But the display was stopped after 9 hours and about 25 moves with no games finished, although reporters said Paulsen “would have won them”. The exhibition was probably terminated because it was 10 PM and the players were tired. If these reports are accurate, Paulsen never gave a complete blindfold display against 15 opponents and therefore the event should not be considered to have set a world record.
(The following article appeared in the July 2011 issue of Chess Life. Its title there was “Jeepers, Creepers: Who Needs Those Peepers?” The author, GM Andrew Soltis, and Chess Life magazine have given us permission to reprint the article on this website, with very minor formatting changes. It should inspire readers to try playing blindfold and gives examples that provide some instructional hints.)
Of all the creatures on this planet, chessplayers are among the least likely to be accused of modesty. But there’s one skill in which we underestimate ourselves. Believe it or not, it’s blindfold chess.
I suspect that you are better at blindfold than you think. In fact, I’d bet that at least a third of Chess Life readers can play through a game score mentally.
Furthermore, I’d wager that a substantial number of readers can play their own game without sight of the board. A smaller group can play more than one blindfold game simultaneously. And there are some — well, like Hikaru Nakamura — who can play 10 boards blind.
I know what you’re going to say: “Not me. I can’t picture the entire board in my mind.” But almost no one does that in blindfold chess — or in any other type of chess, for that matter.
Focus on those quads
White: GM Loek van Wely (FIDE 2683)
Black: GM Vassily Ivanchuk (FIDE 2750)
Melody Amber Blindfold Tourney 2007
This could be a Black-to-play-and-win position from our monthly quiz. Before reading on, cover up the next paragraph and try to solve it.
Black “saw” that White’s last move threatens 27. Qxh4. He also saw that 26…Qxe1+ doesn’t lead anywhere. But he found that 26…Bxg2+ 27. Kxg2 h1(Q)+! leads to a forced mate (28. Qxh1 Qg4+ or28…Rf2+).
Now if you saw all that — or even a fraction of it — you may have noticed how your attention was focused on the lower right corner of the board. You probably paid no attention at all to the knight at d7 or White’s queenside pieces, not to mention the distant pawns. You may have looked at only 16 squares, on the e- to h-files.
Over the course of the last year and a half we have written two blogs on this website about the German FIDE master Marc Lang’s successive and dramatic increases in the number of blindfold games he has played all at once. He moved from playing 15 simultaneously in June 2009 to becoming the holder of the German record of 23 in November of the same year. Just recently (Nov.27-28, 2010) he successfully took on 35 opponents in Sontheim, Germany, which eclipsed the 34-board performance of George Koltanowski in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1937. Koltanowski’s accomplishment became the world record for number of simultaneous blindfold games played up to that time, but a decade later Miguel Najdorf played 45 at once in São Paulo, Brazil and this currently stands as the generally accepted world record.
So, with 35 games, Marc Lang now holds both the German and European records. Only Najdorf’s achievement stands between Lang’s and the world record. He expects to play 46 late next year to establish a new world record and it seems likely that he will reach this goal. Psychologists would consider all the displays mentioned above, as well as others described in our book, to be among the greatest memory feats that humans have accomplished.
Lang’s recent display received exceptional coverage in the German television and general print media, perhaps as much as or more than has been devoted to regular world chess championship reports. Maybe that is because no German GM has been a solid world championship contender for many years! If you know the German language you can read a detailed report of Lang’s 35-board display here, which also includes a listing of all the individual board results, photos and videos of the exhibition, as well as other historical and relevant material. It even shows Lang playing chess at home with his two young children and observing wife, or riding his bike to maintain his general physical health and to keep in shape for his strenuous displays. We reproduce here the U-tube video from German TV, which will give our readers a view of the playing arrangement and computer-controlled setup, as well as many other features of the exhibition. Unfortunately, the audio part of the video is in German, but the visual part is easy for most of us to follow, even without a knowledge of that language.
Rather than sending our readers to German language websites, I think they would like to find out some details and sidelights of Lang’s recent display written in English. He has corresponded extensively with me and much of what follows is derived from his emails. His final score was 19 wins, 13 draws, and 3 losses, a very good winning percentage of 72.9%. The whole event took 23 hours from about 9 AM on Saturday, November 27 to about 8 AM on Sunday, with a total of four breaks (half-hour each). Lang sat in the center of the exhibition room, facing all his opponents whose chess positions were concealed from him by cardboard barriers in front of each game. Lang has used this arrangement before and he could chat and joke with each opponent if he wanted to. Also, seeing the people he faced probably enabled him to build up stronger associations with the moves that had occurred in each game. Lang allowed opponents to be replaced by another person if they got too tired and did not want to stay until the finish.
The financial crises of the past few years have adversely affected almost all of us. Of course they are among the most common topics that politicians, bloggers, newscasters, Main Streeters and Wall Streeters, and just about everyone else discuss endlessly and debate vigorously. The publication last year of This Time Is Different by world-renowned economists Kenneth Rogoff and Carmen Reinhart offered a historical investigation of disastrous monetary decisions from 66 countries over the last 800 years, not focusing on the application of recent economic theory but presenting data that many contemporary economists neglect, are ignorant of, or think are irrelevant to today’s major issues. The book is a best seller, having sold nearly 100,000 copies since last September’s publication.
So the book is basically non-theoretical in focus, unlike most current economic tomes, and is very factually oriented. An article about it by Catherine Rampell was featured in The New York Times of July 4, where she describes it as a “quantitative reconstruction of hundreds of historical episodes in which perfectly smart people made perfectly disastrous decisions.” Readers of our website can find the article here. Or they could have seen Rogoff in person on one of his numerous appearances on CNN and other television channels. However, they may be surprised that Rampell devotes some space to Rogoff’s chess career, which I think certainly did merit mention.
At the age of 17, Rogoff played first board for the United States team that won the Chess World Student Olympiad in Haifa, Israel, in 1970. He finally gained the grandmaster title in 1978 and soon afterward completely gave up serious chess! He decided to devote himself to the field of economics and after graduate work at MIT, he eventually became chief economist at the International Monetary Fund and later accepted professorships, first at Princeton and then at Harvard, where he is now located.
FIDE master Marc Lang, who set a new German record of 23 simultaneous blindfold games last November, has announced that he will attempt something especially spectacular next year: to beat the long-standing world record of 45 games, set over 60 years ago by Grandmaster Miguel Najdorf in São Paulo, Brazil in 1947. Fans of this website will recall that we located Najdorf’s only surviving opponent from that exhibition and he contributed his memories of that event for a blog we posted last April 11. Check our list of blogs if you would like to read it over. In another blog (June 28, 2009) we noted that Lang had recently played 15 simultaneous blindfold games and was going to try to surpass the German record of 22, set by British GM Anthony Miles in Roetgen in 1984. Lang kept his promise and took on 23 last November 21. We are hoping he can keep his new promise and in 2011 successfully achieve a new world record of 46, earning himself a distinctive place in chess history.
Since no one has apparently played more than 26 simultaneous blindfold games since 1993, when Hans Jung of Canada played that many, Lang will be taking quite a leap forward and doubling the number of games he handled in his 23-board display. The 23-board display has not received adequate coverage in the non-German chess media and Lang was kind enough to send us more material about that exhibition, including a selection of games and a few photographs. We devote this blog mainly to his play in that event and will let you ponder whether he will be able to accomplish his goal of 46 games next year.
Lang, 40 and married with two young children, is a self-employed computer programmer and antique dealer, too busy with his business and family to play chess professionally. He lives in Günzburg, 60 miles west of Munich in Bavaria, and keeps up with chess by reading many relevant books and magazines without any chessboard available, in his bed or bathroom. Lang has remarked that “blindfold is just like I’m used to studying chess”.
Grandmaster tournaments and matches are much more varied today than they were throughout most of the 20th century. The “old-fashioned” events had slow time limits and players rarely had to play more than one game a day. More recent tourneys are often played at a much faster overall pace, frequently have sudden-death blitz playoffs after a relatively slow start, and may involve computers or humans-plus-computer as entries. One of the most interesting new varieties has consistently attracted the top grandmasters in the world to its venue – the annual Amber tournaments in Monaco or Nice during March or April. There the contestants play two games a day with a single opponent, one at a rapid speed (25 minutes for the entire game, with a bonus of 10 sec for each move made) with a standard chessboard and pieces to move in front of them, and the other at basically the same speed with both players “blindfolded”, in the sense that they enter their moves on a computer keyboard but can see only a blank chessboard and their opponent’s last move on the monitor facing them.
The Amber tourneys allow an eventual comparison of each player’s world ranking at blindfold chess with his or her ranking in rapid chess or in chess at the traditional slow speed (“classical”, FIDE-rated games). Would the FIDE rankings of grandmasters correlate best with their blindfold play or with their rapid play, and would players’ rankings in blindfold and rapid chess differ significantly? Supposedly obvious predictions about these correlations might prove false if data were available to test them.
Elmer Sangalang of the Philippines volunteered to calculate ratings based on the 2,376 games played in the rapid and blindfold modes over all the 18 Amber tourneys that started in 1993, including the most recent event in March of 2010. Sangalang was the editor of the 2nd edition of Arpad Elo’s “The Rating of Chess Players, Past and Present”, published in 1986, which extended and corrected material in the first edition. Now retired, Sangalang worked mainly as an engineer, actuary, and applied mathematician. He has been a consultant for FIDE on the ELO rating system since 1984.
It was not an easy job to collect complete scoretables for every Amber tourney but ultimately Sangalang was successful and he could include all games from the blindfold and rapid halves of those events. On the other hand, FIDE ratings appear regularly every 2 months and he waited for the publication of the May 1, 2010 ratings and rankings to have the most recent results available for his analysis.
His method for calculating the Amber rapid and blindfold ratings followed the standard ELO procedure (Method of Successive Approximations). The calculations began by assigning every player an initial rating of 2600, to keep the numerical values completely independent of players’ different FIDE ratings. Starting with the players’ actual FIDE ratings seemed less reasonable and would bias the results in favor of the more highly-ranked individuals. So all the numerical ratings for the three groups presented below (Blindfold, Rapid, and FIDE) are independent of each other and cannot be compared in terms of their numerical values, that is, one cannot conclude that, say, Anand’s FIDE rating of 2789 means that he is better at slow chess than rapid chess (rating of 2688) or blindfold chess (rating of 2667). However, the rankings of the players (from 1 to 29) have no such limitations or restrictions and a comparison of these in the three groups is entirely justified. To increase the statistical reliability of the results, only players who participated in at least two Amber tourneys were included below, a total of 29 competitors.
Here are the results for the three types of play. We reiterate that each of the three sets of data are independent of each other, and the numerical values of the ratings cannot be legitimately compared. Before looking at the results, readers might like to guess, for example, whether FIDE rankings would correlate best with rankings in blindfold play or sighted rapid play.
|Ranking||Name||Number of |
|20||Vallejo Pons, Francisco||4||2531|
|25||Van Wely, Loek||12||2503|
|Ranking||Name||Number of |
|20||Van Wely, Loek||12||2534|
|22||Vallejo Pons, Francisco||4||2515|
|16||Vallejo Pons, Francisco||2703|
|21||Van Wely, Loek||2653|
After all the above rankings had been tabulated, statistically-determined correlations were calculated for each of the three possible pairs of comparisons: Blindfold vs. Rapid, Blindfold vs. FIDE, and Rapid vs. FIDE. Somewhat surprisingly, the FIDE rankings correlated most strongly with the Blindfold rather than with the Rapid rankings, even though both the FIDE and Rapid results involved games played with sight of a chessboard and the Blindfold games did not. All the different correlations were highly statistically reliable, but the strongest one was between FIDE and Blindfold; the next highest was between FIDE and Rapid, and the weakest was between Blindfold and Rapid. For those readers who are familiar with correlational techniques in statistics , the FIDE vs. Blindfold correlation for player rankings was +.84, for FIDE vs. Rapid +.76, and for Blindfold vs. Rapid +.72.
It is intriguing to speculate as to why a player’s world ranking (FIDE) in regular, “classical” chess would correlate best with his or her blindfold ranking, rather than with his or her regular rapid play. We offer one possibility and we welcome other suggestions from readers: Players may well be more cautious or careful in blindfold play than in rapid play with sight of the chessboard and thus try riskier lines of play in the latter, leading to more variable outcomes. (Recall the advice of world-class blindfold players like Alekhine who recommended that one “keep it simple” when playing without sight of the board). The fact that in the Amber tourneys the correlation between the Blindfold and Rapid conditions was relatively low (+.72) would be consistent with essentially the same kind of argument. At any rate, and speaking more loosely, you can predict a grandmaster’s FIDE ranking better from his Blindfold ranking than from his Rapid ranking.
We thank Mr. Sangalang for his careful and extensive work making the above calculations. Readers with questions or critical comments should send them to him or us via the “Comments” boxes below this blog. All of them will be published and answered.
An interview with Eliot Hearst, conducted by IM John Watson on the Internet Chess Club website, was published on Tuesday, April 6, at 3PM (ET). The interview focuses on blindfold chess, but covers other general chess topics.
The ICC site features more than 100 other interviews with various chess personalities.
In the years we spent researching our book on Blindfold Chess we never discovered any report of a scheduled, well-regulated multi-board blindfold simultaneous display by a woman, although we do mention some individual games that women played without sight of the board (see pp.136-138 of the book and the games section). We asked the eminent chess historian Edward Winter if he had knowledge of such a performance and he could not recall a single case. So in his “Chess Notes” column of August 29, 2009 (CN 6289 at www.chesshistory.com) he asked his large number of readers whether any of them could supply information about a woman’s playing more than one or two games under well-controlled conditions. No one responded with an example.
The current women’s world champion, Alexandra Kosteniuk, has stated that she could probably manage three or four blindfold games at the same time, but has never really tried to play more than three (see her September 7, 2009 blog at www.chessblog.com). Apparently these three were not played under well-controlled, serious conditions, but were relatively informal. Therefore it seems very likely that the 5-board display recently given by U.S. Women’s Champion Anna Zatonskih is the first instance of an organized, refereed, formal multi-board simultaneous blindfold display by a woman. It was played in St. Louis in October, 2009 just before the start of the U.S. Women’s Championship, which was won by the defending champion, Anna herself, who has now won that championship three times. Throughout her exhibition Anna actually wore a blindfold, which was used for its dramatic effect since all her opponents were behind her and so she could not see any of the board positions anyway.
Woman GM Jennifer Shahade, one of the organizers of all the events connected with the championship (she did not enter the competition this time), devised a very original and clever idea to further promote blindfold chess during the festivities in St. Louis—a scheme that involved all 10 entrants in the tourney playing a single blindfold game together! In drawing numbers to determine the round-robin pairings in the championship, a necessary preliminary in all such tourneys, each woman picked a scarf from one of ten available. The players made their choices in a predetermined random order. Each scarf had a hidden number stitched on it, which would be the number assigned the player who chose it. Then the 10 players were blindfolded and sat in a row of numbered chairs that alternated in color. Number 1 started the group blindfold game by calling out her move (White’s first move) and then Number 2, seated next to Number 1, responded with Black’s first move, and so on, with the odd-numbered players composing the White team and the even-numbered players the Black team. The game was played rapidly and Black won eventually when a White player blundered away a queen. The White team had to resign and the crowd watching this spectacle gave all 10 women a standing ovation.
A video of the arrangement at the exhibition, including some vocal comments from Anna at the conclusion of play, follows. The video was filmed by Macauley Peterson of chess.fm and is also available at blip.tv:
Although our book covers Johannes Zukertort’s blindfold career in detail, his answers to a reporter from The New York Herald on December 2, 1883, add some color and additional particulars about his play without sight of the board. Zukertort held the world record for number of simultaneous games played blindfolded for almost a quarter of a century. He set a new record by playing 16 at once in 1876 in London, which was not equaled or exceeded until Harry Pillsbury played 16, 17, and 20 total games in 1900. Here are some of Zukertort’s comments from the 1883 article, seven years after he set his record and when he was touring New York. The article is titled “What The Memory Can Do” and two subtitles are “A head full of pigeonholes” and “Mental pictures that come and go like those of a magic lantern.”
The NYH reporter first asked Zukertort to explain the method by which he is able to play a number of blindfold games at once:
I was first taught the moves on a chessboard in 1860, when I was eighteen years old. I was at college studying the natural sciences. Soon after that I went to the University of Breslau, where there was a chess club, and where I was beaten nine out of every ten games I played. This was in June, 1861. Then I began to study chess — in fact, I became infatuated with the game. I played in the day time and read chess books at night. By the following February there was no man living who could give me the odds of a knight. The great Anderssen was in Breslau, and we played together a great deal. In a series of twenty-four games, in which he gave me the odds of a knight, I won twenty and drew two.
In reading the chess books so much I discovered my capacity for carrying on a game as I read it, without looking at a board, in much the same way as a musician might read music. I cultivated the faculty, and finding that I could play one game blindfold I tried to play two games, and was successful. In January, 1868, I gave my first public exhibition of blindfold playing. I played seven games at that time, and afterward nine games. I never played eight that I can remember. Gradually I ran the number up from nine to twelve, and finally to sixteen. That is as many games as I have ever attempted blindfold, and no other player has ever done as much. I played the sixteen in the West End Chess Club of London December 11, 1876, against sixteen of the strongest amateur players of the St. George’s and West End clubs. I won twelve, drew three and lost but one. The single winner was an American gentleman living in London, Mr. W. Ballard.
The reporter asked: Can you play more than sixteen games, do you think?